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Full text of "The Great Apes – the road ahead. A GLOBIO perspective on the impacts of infrastructural development on The Great Apes"

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UNEP WCMC 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 





A Gipbio perspective 

on the impacts of 

infrastructural development 

on The Great Apes 



Front cover photos 



Left to right: Daniel O'Brien/UNEP/Topham; Born Free Foundation/I Redmond; G Brower/UNEP/Topham; 
Born Free Foundation/I Redmond; Tan Yik Yee/UNEP/Topham. 

Disclaimer 

The contents of this report do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of UNEP or contributory 
organizations. The designations employed and the presentations do not imply the expressions of any opinion 
whatsoever on the part of UNEP or contributory organizations concerning the legal status of any country, 
territory, city or area or its authority, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. 



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UNEP WCMC 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 



A Gipbio perspective 

on the impacts of 

infrastructural development 

on The Great Apes 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 



Editors 



Dr. Christian Nellemann 

Global coordinator, GLOBIO 

UNEPGRID-Arendal 

c/o Norwegian Institute for Nature Research 

Fakkelgarden, Storhove 

N-2624 Lillehammer, Norway 

Tel. + 47 612 87900 

Fax + 47 612 87901 

e-mail christian.nellemannianina.no 

website http://www.globio.info/ 



Dr. Adrian Newton 

UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre 

219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL, UK 

Tel. +44(0)1223 277314 

Fax +44 (0)1223 277136 

e-mail adnan.new1onf3unep-wcmc.org 

website http://www.unep-wcmc.org/ 



Contributors 



Hugo Ahlenius 

UNEPGRID-Arendal 

Longum Park 

Service Box 706, N-4808 Arendal, Norway 

e-mail ahleniusiagrida.no 

website http://www.gnda.no/ 

Jared Bakuza, Mary Edwards, 

Dr. Brian Groombndge, Dr. Kim McConkey 

UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre 

219 Huntingdon Road 

Cambridge CB3 ODL, UK 

Tel. +4410)1223 277314 

Fax +44 (0)1223 277136 

website http://www.unep-wcmc.org/ 

Mariel Flores, Ingunn Vistnes 
Agricultural University of Norway 
Dept. of Biology and Nature Conservation 
P.O. Box 5014. N-1430 As, Norway 



Dr. Ruth de Fries 

(Remote sensing data for forest cover] 

Department of Geography and Earth System 

Science Interdisciplinary Center 
University of Maryland 
College Park 
Massachusetts, MD 20742, USA 

Dr. B. P. Kaltenborn 

Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA] 

Storhove 

N-2624 Lillehammer 

Norway 

Melanie Virtue 

(Team leader, GRASP] 

UNEP DEC (Division for Environmental 

Conventions] 
P.O. Box 30552 
Nairobi. Kenya 



Preface 




Dr. Klaus Toepfer, Executive Director, United Nations Environment Programme 



The great apes are on the brink of extinction. The toss of our closest relatives on Earth would not only be 
a great tragedy, it would signify the demise of entire ecosystems and the people who rely on them. 
The fate of the great apes has great symbolic implications for mankind's ability to develop a more 
sustainable future. 



The destruction of the forests of Indonesia and Africa has enormous costs for biodiversity, but also for people 
living in poverty and under political instability, thereby threatening their access to food and medicine. For many 
indigenous people, it also means the loss of traditional lifestyles and their cultural identity. 

Roads are being built in the few remaining pristine forests of Africa and Southeast Asia to extract timber, 
minerals and oil, often by companies based in the industrialized world. Uncontrolled road construction in these 
areas makes increased bushmeat hunting and deforestation possible. 

This report suggests the possible fate of the great apes and their habitats, if current trends continue. It is not 
too late to stop uncontrolled exploitation of these forests. By doing so, we may save not only the great apes, but 
also thousands of other species. We will also help protect the livelihoods of the many people that rely on these 
forests for food, medicine and clean water. Protecting the great apes is not just about protecting forests and 
biodiversity, but about the future of us all. 




Construction of roads in forest areas is of particular importance, as such development may increase logging, hunting, 
mining, plantation establishment, agriculture and industrial development and access by bushmeat hunters, which are 
all factors threatening great ape populations. 



Contents 



Contents 



Executive summary 6 

Introduction 7 

Scope of this report 7 

The GLOBIO method 9 

The impact of infrastructural development on bonobo, chimpanzee and gorilla habitats 1 1 

The impact of infrastructural development on orangutan habitats 17 

Conclusion: Great apes, the road ahead 22 

Literature cited 23 

Annex 1: Status and distribution of great apes 24 

Current status and distribution of African great apes 24 

Chimpanzee 24 

Gorilla 25 

Current status and distribution of Southeast Asian great apes 27 

Orangutan 27 

Annex 2: GLOBIO, GRASP and the World Atlas of Great Apes 29 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 



Executive Summary 



T 



he great apes, including the chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan, are threatened with extinction. All 
species are rapidly declining in abundance, even within protected areas. For example, in a survey of 2k 
protected areas in Africa and Southeast Asia, great ape populations are declining in 96% of these sites. 



The main factors responsible for decline in great ape species are loss and degradation of habitat, and hunting. 
Construction of roads in forest areas is of particular importance, as such development may increase logging, 
hunting, mining, plantation establishment, agriculture and industrial development and access by bushmeat 
hunters, which are all factors threatening great ape populations. 

This report assesses the impact of infrastructural development on great ape populations, using the GLOBIO 
modelling approach. GLOBIO is a multivariate spatial model, which estimates the extent of land area with 
reduced abundance and diversity of living organisms, as a result of infrastructural development. The model can 
also be used to develop scenarios of possible future impacts, based on the current rates of infrastructural 
development. 

Results of GLOBIO analyses indicate that more than 70% of the habitat of each of the African great ape species 
has been negatively affected by infrastructural development. For orangutan, the corresponding figure is 64%. 

Future scenarios suggest that the annual loss of undisturbed habitat will be greater than 2% per year in the 
case of the African great apes, and 5% in the case of the orangutan, in Southeast Asia. By 2032, the scenarios 
suggest that less than 10% of great ape habitat in Africa will remain free of the impacts of infrastructural 
development. In the case of orangutan, the corresponding figure is less than 1%. These figures are supported 
by estimates of habitat loss and degradation made independently, by great ape field researchers. 

Urgent action is required by the governments of great ape range states, with financial and political support from 
the international community, to ensure the future survival of great apes. 



Introduction 



Introduction 



In recent years, great ape species have declined at an alarming rate IButynski 2001, Robertson and van 
Schaik 2001]. One of the main reasons for this decline is intensive exploitation of natural resources in some 
of the areas where great apes live. The habitats of the great apes contain valuable economic resources such 
as timber, minerals and oil. In order to access these resources, extensive infrastructural development, 
particularly roads, has occurred in many tropical areas, resulting in fragmentation of great ape habitats. 

The development of road networks, which in tropical areas are often designed explicitly to access natural 
resources, has resulted in many environmental impacts (Turner 1996). Tropical forests have been deforested 
by an average of approximately 1.8% annually in African great ape range states during 1990-2000, and by an 
average of approximately 1 .2% annually in Southeast Asia during the same period IFAO 2001 ]. By increasing 
access by people to previously inaccessible areas, and by fragmenting habitat, road development is a major 
cause of biodiversity loss (Turner 1996, Angelsen and Kaimowitz 1999, Wilkie etal. 2000]. Roads intended for 
oil, gas, mineral or fibre extraction can result in extensive uncontrolled immigration, with resultant increases 
in illegal logging, hunting and poaching of animals, transport of bushmeat, slash and burn agriculture, and 
conflicts with local communities (Andrews 1990, Angelsen and Kaimowitz 1999, Forman and Alexander 1998, 
Houghton 1994, Kummer and Turner, 1994, Lambin et al. 2001, Maki, Kalliola and Vuonnen 2001, Reid and 
Bowles 1997, Robertson and van Schaik 2001. Trombulak and Frissell 2000, Wilkie et al. 2000, UNEP 2001; 
see http://www.globio.info/ for further review]. 



Scope of this report 



In this report, we provide a preliminary assessment of the impacts of infrastructural development on the 
great apes, using the GLOBIO method. This work has been undertaken as part of an ongoing effort to 
assess the current status of great ape species, and the pressures that affect them, in support of the 
Great Ape Survival Project (GRASP] coordinated by UNEP In the future, we aim to refine the assessment as 
improved information on the status and distribution of great apes becomes available through preparation 
of the World Atlas of Great Apes (see Annex 2). This report should therefore be viewed as a work in 
progress. The editors welcome comments, suggestions and contributions as the work progresses during 
development of the atlas. 




Roads in developing countries are often built with capital input from multinational companies and economic networks 
based in the industrialized world. 



The GLOBIO method 



The GLOBIO method 



The GLOBI02-model is being developed for and 
together with the United Nations Environment 
Programme IUNEP] to help assess and map 
the environmental impact of human development 
IUNEP 2001]. GLOBI02 is a distance-related 
multivariable buffer-based model for estimating 
the extent of land area with reduced abundance and 
diversity of living organisms, as a result of 
infrastructural development. The model can also 
be used to develop scenarios of possible future 
impacts. The model incorporates buffer zones of 
probability of reduced abundance of wildlife 
occurring around infrastructure features, such as 
roads, major trails, human settlements, industrial 
features such as power lines, dams, etc. 

Data sets were compiled on a global 1x1° 
longitude-latitude grid system and included all 
linear infrastructure (major trails, roads, railroads, 
power lines and pipelines] in the DCW (VMAP level 
and 1), land cover from USGS-GLCC2 based on 
AVHRR data from 1992-1993, population density 
from GPW, version 2, and resource databases on oil, 
gas and mineral reserves from ArctAtlas Isee 
www.globio.info for more information]. 

For illustrative purposes, four zones of impact are 
defined based on the functional response of species 
to disturbance arising from infrastructural devel- 
opment, identified by a review of published research. 
For the review, the literature covered by the Current 
Contents/Agriculture, Biology and Environmental 
Sciences database was used as a source. Current 



Contents provides access to bibliographic 
information from articles, editorials, meeting 
abstracts, commentaries and all other significant 
items in recently published editions of over 1,040 of 
the world's leading agriculture, biology and envir- 
onmental sciences journals and books HSI net 2001 ]. 
Article titles and keywords were searched for the 
terms landscape, habitat patch or patch, forest 
fragmentation, roads and disturbance from the 
period January 1987 to October 2001. In this review, 
experiments were excluded and only articles strictly 
based on empirical investigations published in 
journals, relating to fragmentation or disturbance 
effects associated with roads, human traffic or 
activity were included, giving a total of 309 articles on 
the issue of disturbance from roads. This overview 
was cross-checked against recent literature reviews. 

Based on these articles', the zones of impact were 
defined statistically, based upon the distribution of 
declining species within different distance 
categories to roads: 

• "high impact" - upper 50th percentile (i.e. the 
distance interval within which >50% of all species 
that decline by >50% are found]; 

• "medium-high impact" - 25-50th percentile Ithe 
distance interval within which 25-50% of all 
recorded species that decline by >50% are found); 

• "medium-low" impact - 1 -25th percentile (the 
distance interval within which 1-25% of all 
recorded species that decline by >50% a-e found], 
and 

• "low impact" (for areas beyond those distances]. 




High human impact 
Medium-high impact 
Low-medium impact 



Methodology 

synthesize current scientific studies on 
environmental impacts 



\ 



relate probability of impact to distance 
to infrastructure 



J 



estimate development of infrastructure 
based on different growth rates 



\ 



The 

2032 

scenario 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 



Distance zones with an estimated reduction in 
abundance of vertebrates vary with type of 
infrastructure (utilities, tracks and trails have 
50-75% lower impact zones] Isee www.globio.info), 
land cover, climatic region and population density, 
and are based on literature surveys linking risk of 
decline in wildlife to distance to infrastructure using 
regression analysis. These impacts are often related 
to such factors as land and water degradation, 
conversion of land, fragmentation or hunting. 

By using distance to infrastructure land subsequent 
infrastructure density] as a measure of risk to bio- 
diversity, it is possible to predict the approximate 
area of impact zones with associated road density in 
the future Iby simple regression analyses using 
different alternatives of growth]. If a projected growth 
implies a given annual increase in infrastructure 
density and built-up areas, the extent of the future 
impact zones away from existing infrastructure can 
be calculated as: 
IZy-ZiDIZJPwJ-A^fci 
where: 
IZ y = Impact Zone given as perpendicular 

distance away from infrastructure in the 

future year;; 
IZ C = Current Impact Zone given as perpendicular 

distance away from infrastructure in the 

current year Ibaseline]; 
P rc ,,i= Annual percent increase in growth predicted 

of IZ C for the individual years /; 
A me)z = Geographical area/land cover of 

environmental impact zones that have 

merged. 

Each unit was classified according to vegetation 
cover, oil, gas and minerals present in a 50 km 
radius, and density of infrastructure. The growth rate 
in infrastructure was then set as a function of these 
resources according to the following scheme: the 
growth potential is defined as: 
Proti= Bg (PcoJ; 



where: 



Pc S ,= 



Annual percentual increase in growth 
predicted of \Z C for the individual years i; 
a baseline growth of 1%; 
Product of multiplication constants for 
different distances to sea/coast (<50 km 
from coast] 11.25], croplands {1 .01; 
grasslands (0.751; broadleaf/tropical forest 
(1.75); semi-deserts and deserts (0.5); 
wetlands (1.0), and mineral deposits, gas 
and petroleum reserves within a 50 km 
radius (1.5), and finally population density 
10-10 / km- = 0.5; 10-50 / km'' = 1.0; and >50 
km' = 1 .51, the ranking of which has been 
determined using outputs from multiple 
regression analysis. 

For a given time period of i years the growth 
potential is quantified as: P Toti = P 7 o, B " S01 ■ 



For the development of future scenarios, the 
following assumptions were made, as defined by the 
rules presented above: 
i] infrastructure primarily expands away from 

existing infrastructure and through further 

aggregation; 
ii| infrastructural development will continue 

according to current rates of increase; 
iii) areas with relatively high current population 

density will experience relatively high rates of 

growth in infrastructure; 
iv) areas with known timber, oil, gas or mineral 

resources will experience relatively high rates of 

growth in infrastructure; 
v] areas close to coasts will experience relatively 

high rates of growth in infrastructure. 

The rate of growth in infrastructure is estimated from 
historic changes in land use and road development 
based on data and projections obtained for different 
continents, for the period 1850-2000. For full details 
of the method, see http://www.globio.info 



Studies demonstrating a relationship between habitat fragmentation and decline in abundance of species were also included in 
this analysis. Fragmentation of continuous forest into smaller more isolated patches generally follows road construction, and 
subsequent logging, deforestation and conversion into croplands lAngelsen and Kaimowitz 1999, Forman and Alexander 1998, 
Houghton 1994. Kummer and Turner 1994. Lambin et al. 2001, Maki, Kaltiola and Vuonnen 2001, Reid and Bowles 1997, 
Robertson and van Schaik 2001. Trombulak and Fnssell 2000. Wilkie et al. 2000I Often the effects of roads on wildlife are 
presented as the critical area of habitat fragments lislandsl below which species decline. Size of forest fragments is closely 
correlated with road density at regional scales; the more roads, the greater the fragmentation and the smaller the fragments 
lAguilar et al. 2001 1. Here, we also included the results of fragmentation studies by taking the square root of the area of the 
fragment in knv below which a >50% decline in species abundance was recorded, as a measure of the impact zone from roads. 



Chimpanzee and gorilla habitats 



The impact of infrastructural 
development on bonobo, 
chimpanzee and gorilla habitats 




Born Free Foundation/B Hams-Jones 




Two species of chimpanzee occur in Africa: 
the common chimpanzee [top left] Pan 
troglodytes (often shortened to chimpanzee] 
and the bonobo Itop right] Pan paniscus (formerly 
known as the pygmy or gracile chimpanzee]. 
Gorillas (bottom left] occur in a range of forest 
habitats in Africa. Populations are grouped in two 
main regions: eguatorial West Africa and eastern 
Central Africa. These populations are sometimes 
referred to as full species, Gorilla gorilla and 
Gorilla oennge/ respectively (see Annex 1). 



Born Free Foundatton/I Redmond 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 




P Aventuner/UNEP/Topha, 



Large-scale logging operations made possible through road construction can cause losses of the habitats of the 
great apes, as well other species. 



Loss of suitable forest habitat is by far the greatest 
threat to both chimpanzees and gorillas, along 
with bushmeat hunting. Road development 
contributes to both, by improving access to hitherto 
inaccessible areas. Road construction can also 
promote habitat fragmentation, which can increase 
the risks to individual ape populations. The rem- 
nant populations of chimpanzee are primarily 
located in remnant forest, game reserves and 
national parks, but unauthorized hunting, logging, 
mining and farming are common in many nom- 
inally protected areas. 




C Brower/UNEP/Topharr 



Road construction is one of the key factors threatening 
biodiversity and the remaining habitats of the great 
apes, by increasing opportunities for mining and 
oil extraction, bushmeat hunting and conversion of 
forest to agriculture. 



12 



Chimpanzee and gorilla habitats 



Table 1. Estimated numbers ol 


remaining African great apes in the wild (source 


Butynski 2001] 


Species / subspecies 


Latin name 


Estimated number 
remaining 


Western chimpanzee 


Pan troglodytes verus 


25,500-52.900 


Nigeria chimpanzee 


P. troglodytes velterosus 


4. 000-6,000 


Central chimpanzee 


P. troglodytes troglodytes 


47.500-78,000 


Eastern chimpanzee 


P. troglodytes schwemfurthn 


75,200-117,700 


Bonobo 


P. paniscus 


20.000-50,000 


Western lowland gorilla 


Gorilla gorilla gorilla 


94.500 


Cross River gorilla 


C. gorilla diehli 


200 


Mountain gorilla 


G. beringei beringei 


324 


Grauer's gorilla 


G. beringei graueri 


16900 


Bwindi gorilla 


G. beringei Issp. ?1 


300 





Insufficient data are available to define the rate of 
decline in abundance of the African great apes with 
any precision. However, a detailed survey of expert 
opinion was recently undertaken involving 34 ape 
field researchers. Data were collected from 24 
protected areas in 11 countries that contain great 
ape populations (Marshall, Jones and Wrangham 
20001. The data collected (Table 2] refer to the 
status of ape populations in protected areas where 
there is a dedicated research presence; this is 
where prospects for ape survival are most 
optimistic, and therefore these data significantly 
underestimate the overall magnitude of threats to 



great ape populations. These data indicate that 
even within such high-profile protected areas, 96% 
of field workers reported that the ape populations 
with which they are familiar are in decline. Eleven 
percent of the researchers consulted considered 
that their populations will have become extinct 
within the next 50 years; 72% of populations are 
expected to decline by at least 50%. Results also 
indicated that apes are hunted within 62% of all 
protected areas. Habitat loss and illegal logging 
were also cited as major threats to great apes 
(Marshall, Jones and Wrangham 20001. 



Table 2. Percentage 
(source: Marshall, J 


of protected areas with ape populat 
Dnes and Wrangham 2000) 


ons 


that are stable 


declining and rising 


Ape species 




% rising 


% stable 




% declining 


No. of areas 


Chimpanzee 
Bonobo 
Gorilla 
Orangutan 










9 

16 








91 

83 

100 

100 


11 
6 
7 
3 


All protected 


areas 





4 




96 


24 



13 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 



Atlantic Ocean 




TROPICAL AFRICA 


LEGEND 




National boundaries 

Coastline 
Water oodles 
Rivers 


% Tree cover 

No tree cover 
1-20% 


Relief 


20 -40 % 


■ 7500 m 


IB 40-60% 




■■ 60-80% 


■ 


National protected areas 
IUCN categories l-VI 


] m 

Distribution of Great 
Apes in Africa 


International 
protected areas 

Ramsar site 


Chimpanzee 


I World Hentage site 


Rg Gorilla 750 Kms \ 


» 



Figure 1. Distribution map of African great apes 

The range data presented here are derived from the African Mammals Databank 
(http://gorilla.bio.uniroma1.it/amd/index.html, developed by the Istituto di Ecologia Applicata, Rome, 
Italy. These data are currently being updated, through collaboration with a range of partners, during preparation 
of the World Atlas of Great Apes. Protected Area data were derived from the database managed by UNEP-WCMC 
and the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas. Forest cover data are based on remote sensing data 
IMODIS) and were kindly provided by the Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland. 



14 



Chimpanzee and gorilla habitats 



The maps presented have been made using the 
GL0BI02-model applied to the current ranges of 
the great apes (using data presented opposite in 
Fig. 1). The results are summarized below (Table 
3, Fig. 2). These results indicate that less than 30% 
of habitat of each of the African great apes is 
currently classified as low impact, with respect to 
infrastructural development. Future scenarios 
suggest that the annual loss of such habitat will 
be greater than 2% per year, with less than 10% 



remaining in the low impact category by 2032. 
These figures compare with future estimates of 
habitat loss within protected areas of 3-14% 
for African great apes, during the next ten years, 
based on expert judgement (Marshall, Jones and 
Wrangham 2000). The results suggest that habitats 
of the great apes will decline rapidly in coming 
years, with a continuation of the current trend in 
logging, mining and associated road construction, 
associated land conversion and bushmeat hunting. 



Table 3. The extent of habitat of African great apes that is relatively undisturbed (low-impact) by 
infrastructure development at present, and as projected by GL.OBIO scenarios 



Species 



Low-impacted range 

in km 2 

1%) 

Current 2032 



Estimated annual 

loss of current 

low-impacted range 

lkm'1 2000-2032 



Annual relative 

loss projected 

1% of current low- 

impacted range) 



Gorilla 


204,900 
(28) 


69,900 
110) 


4,500 


2.1 


Chimpanzee 


390,840 
(26) 


118,618 
18) 


9,070 


2.3 


Bonobo 


96,483 
(23) 


17,750 
(4) 


2,624 


2.8 



Figure 2. Projected trends in the extent of habitat of African great apes that is relatively undisturbed 
(low-impact) with continued rates of road development (according to GLOBIO analyses) 



40 



Chimpanzee 




2000 2010 2020 2030 
Year 



15 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 



The following maps illustrate the current and 
potential future impact of infrastructural devel- 



opment within the distributional areas of African 
great apes IFigs 3 and 4). 



Figure 3. Current status of infrastructural development in Africa according to GLOBIO analyses 
The areas in black, red and yellow are areas where species are likely to have declined as a result of infrastructural 
development li.e. respectively high, medium-high and low-medium zones of impact, according to GLOBIO analyses!. 




Figure 1*. Future impact of infrastructural development in Africa according to GLOBIO scenarios for the 
year 2032 

The areas in black, red and yellow are areas where species are likely to have declined as a result of infrastructural 
development li.e. respectively high, medium-high and low-medium zones of impact, according to GLOBIO analyses). 




High human impact 
Medium-high impact 
Low-medium impact 



16 



Orangutan habitats 



The impact of infrastructural 
development on orangutan habitats 




Tan Yik Yee/UNEP/Topham 

Orangutans are the only great apes outside 
Africa, and occur in forested habitats on the 
islands of Borneo (Bornean orangutan, 
Pongo pygmaeus) and the Sumatran orangutan 
(P. abe//7; see Annex 1 for more details). Division of 
Bornean orangutan into different subspecies is 
controversial. Recent analysis of morphological data 
suggests that three subspecies may exist (Groves 
2002]: Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus is medium-sized 
and occurs in northwest Kalimantan and Sarawak; 
the largest subspecies, P. p. wurmbii, is found in 
southwest Kalimantan, and the smallest, P. p. mono, 
occurs in Sabah and east Kalimantan. Rivers form 
the main barriers between these divisions. 

As in Africa, road construction promotes forest loss 
and degradation. Habitat loss, fragmentation and 
degradation are the major factors threatening 
orangutan survival. Human activities (logging, 
mining, plantation establishment, agriculture, road 
building, industrial development etc.) have caused 
the loss of anywhere between 25-50% of suitable 
orangutan habitat depending on region. Less than 
U% of the official conservation and protected forest 
is suitable ape habitat (Rijksen and Meijaard 1 999). 
Official timber concessions almost completely 



overlap the fragmented distribution range of the 
orangutan in Kalimantan and northern Sumatra. In 
eastern Malaysia large areas have been converted for 
plantations and logging has reportedly increased 
considerably during the last 10 years; 86% of forest 
land was conceded for timber concessions in 1986 
(Rijksen and Meijaard 1999). 

Fires have ravaged Kalimantan repeatedly over 
the past two decades and began burning again in 
2002, most of them started by humans. Many start as 
forest intended for plantations and crops is cleared 
and burnt along road corridors. As infrastructure 
expands, these effects penetrate deeper into oran- 
gutan habitats. As a result of the fires, Rijksen and 
Meijaard (1999) believe Borneo's orangutan popu- 
lation was reduced from 23,000 in 1996 to 15,400 in 
1998 - a decline of 33% in just one year. 

Orangutans are unable to survive long-term in 
degraded and fragmented forests. Their fruit- 
dominated diet reguires them to occupy large ranges 
to ensure sufficient supplies and some individuals 
commute between feeding sources. Devastated 
forests offer few fruit resources and orangutans are 
forced out to roam in search of food. Large numbers 



17 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 



were massacred while fleeing the flames and smoke 
during and after the extensive forest fires of 1997 
and 1998. The displacement of apes can cause a 
'shock wave' of refugee crowding in adjacent forests 
IRijksen and Meijaard 1999), which can lead to 
increased physiological and psychological stress, and 
can have negative impacts on reproduction. Similarly, 
orangutan do not cope well with selective logging. 
Selectively logged forest and old secondary growth 
contain only 30-50% of the orangutan density found in 
primary forest (Yeager 1999). 

Orangutans are a protected species over their entire 
distributional range and all hunting is illegal. 
Nevertheless, poaching is common in both Borneo 



and Sumatra. Poaching safaris (by army and 
industrial elites) reportedly take place and hunting is 
still common in rural and forest communities. Losses 
due to hunting and the pet trade may be sizeable and 
recent reports indicate an increase in poaching, 
primarily as a response to the economic crisis in 
Indonesia IRijksen and Meijaard 1999). There is a 
regular trade in apes to ports in Java, Singapore, 
Bangkok, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Habitat loss 
resulting from road construction and associated 
logging, forest clearance and fires has exacerbated 
this problem, since it drives animals into increased 
contact with humans and into ever smaller 
habitat fragments, while increasing access to 
bushmeat hunters. 



Table 4. Estimated 


popi 


ilation sizes 


of orangutan (source: 


Rijksen ar 


d Mei 


aard 1999, Hilton-Taylor 


2000) 






Bornean 






Sumatran 


IUCN category 






Critically endangered 






Endangered 


Population size: 














Early holocene 






420.000 






380,000 


1900 






230,000 






85,000 


1996 






23,000 






12,000 


1997 (after fires) 






15.000 






12,000 


Future predictions 






1.500-2,250 






7.200 





Table 5. Percentage o 
activity and infrastruc 

Species 


orangutan range that is relatively undisturbed (i.e 
ure development projected by GLOBIO scenarios 

Low-impacted range Estimated annual 
in km 2 loss of current 
(%) low-impacted range 
Current 2032 (km 2 ) 2000-2032 


low-impact) by human 

Annual relative 
loss projected 
1% of current low- 
impacted range) 


Orangutan 




92,332 U2h 
(36) (<1) 


4,697 


5 





18 



Orangutan habitats 



So u th 

China 

Sea 



BRUNEI 
DARUSSALAM 



SAB AH 
(Malaysia) 




KALIMANTAN 
(Indonesia) y-^\ p 



h 



Celeb es Sea 



BORNEO 

(Kalimantan, Indonesia; Brunei Darussalam; 

Sawawak & Sabah, Malaysia) 

LEGEND 

% Tree cover 

No tree cover 



National boundaries 

Coastline 

Water bodies 



Relief 



National protected areas 

IUCN categories l-Vl 
International 
protected areas 

Ramsar site 

World Heritage site 



^] 1-20% 

B 40 -60 % 

■ 60 - 80 % 



Distribution of Orangutan 

sgjgjjg Pongo pygmaeus 
wurmbii 

Pongo pygmaeus 
pygmaeus 

Pongo pygmaeus mono 
Reintroduced 
orangutans only 
, Nomadic male reported 
in Brunei 



+ 



Figure 5. Distribution map of great apes in Borneo (abovel and Sumatra (below) 

The range data presented here are derived from Rijksen and Meijaard (19991. These data are currently being 
updated, through collaboration with a range of partners, during preparation of the World Atlas of Great Apes. 
Protected Area data were derived from the database managed by UNEP-WCMC and the IUCN World Commission 
on Protected Areas. Forest cover data are based on remote sensing data (M0DI5) and were kindly provided by the 
Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland. 




100°E v 102"E 



MALAYSIA 
Malacca 



Indian Ocean 




SUMATRA (Indonesia) 

LEGEND 



- National boundaries 
Coastline 
Water bodies 



Relief 



Distribution of Orangutan 
•8SS Confirmed 
™s& Pongo abelii 

U neon finned 

Pongo abelii 



% Tree cover 

I No Iree cover 

"22 1-20% 
~1 20 -40 % 

H 40 -60 % 
| 60 -80 % 

National 
protected areas 

IUCN categories l-VI 

International 
protected areas 
Ramsar site 



+ 



KALIMANTAN 
(Indonesia g --£ 



Java Sea 






19 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 




Paulus Suwtto/UNEP/Topham 

Roads make conversion of forests to farmland and 
plantations possible, including the deliberate use 
of controlled fire. 



»- — - 

J Macedo de Souza/UNEP/Topham 
Mining requires roads to access and transport minerals, 
often resulting in secondary, uncontrolled immigration, 
with subsequent conversion of forests into plantations, 
croplands and. hence, loss of great ape habitat. 



The forests of the great apes are also home to a broad 
range of indigenous people, who rely on the forests 
for medicine, shelter, food and their cultural identity. 



When roads are built to increase access to timber, 
minerals, oil or gas, deforestation and fragmentation 
of great ape habitat can often result. 




CB Hansen/UNEP/Topham 



BYE Pyle/UNEP/Topbam 



The maps presented have been made using the 
GL0BI02-model applied to the current ranges of the 
great apes (using data presented in Fig. 51. The 
results are summarized in Table 5 and Figs 6 and 7. 
These results indicate that approximately 36% of 
orangutan habitat is currently classified as low 
impact, with respect to infrastructural development. 
Future scenarios suggest that the annual loss of such 
habitat will be 5% per year. These figures compare 
with estimates of habitat loss within protected areas 
of 47% for orangutan, during the next ten years, 
based on expert judgement (Marshall, Jones and 
Wrangham 20001. These results suggest severe loss 
of orangutan habitat in coming decades, with less 
than 1% of habitat undisturbed by infrastructural 
development by 2032 [Figs 6 and 81. 



Figure 6. Expected trends in the extent of 
habitat of Southeast Asian great apes that 
is relatively undisturbed (low-impactl 
according to GLOBIO analyses 




1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 
Year 



20 



Orangutan habitats 



Figure 7. Current status of infrastructural development in Southeast Asia according to GLOBIO analyses 

The areas in black, red and yellow are areas where species are likely to have declined as a result of infrastructural 
development li.e. respectively high, medium-high and low-medium zones of impact, according to GLOBIO analyses). 



High human impact 
Medium-high impact 
Low-medium impact 




Figure 8. Future impact of infrastructural development in Southeast Asia according to GLOBIO scenarios, 
for the year 2032 

The areas in black, red and yellow are areas where species are likely to have declined as a result of infrastructural 
development (i.e. respectively high, medium-high and low-medium zones of impact, according to GLOBIO analyses]. 



High human impact 
Medium-high impact 
Low-medium impact 




21 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 



Conclusion: 

Great apes, the road ahead 



All great ape species are currently considered 
to be threatened with extinction. There is 
an urgent need to address the main threats 
to ape populations: the loss and degradation of 
habitat, and hunting IButynksi 2001, Rijksen and 
Meijaard 1999]. Human activities such as logging, 
mining, plantation establishment, agriculture and 
industrial devel-opment, which are all factors 
threatening great ape populations, are facilitated by 
road construction. 

Although roads may often be built for industrial 



purposes, they may directly or indirectly result in 
exploitation and conversion of great ape habitat, and 
increase the access by poachers and bushmeat 
hunters to formerly inaccessible areas. These roads 
are often built with capital input from multinational 
companies and economic networks based in the 
industrialized world. 

The current analyses suggest that if current trends 
continue, infrastructural development will have a 
major impact on remaining great ape populations 
within coming decades. 



22 



Literature cited 



Literature cited 



For a full reference list on roads and wildlife, please see 
http://www.globio.info 

Aguilar, M. C. F., Cortes, J. L, Stoen, 0. G. and 

Nellemann, C. 2001. On the impact of roads in 
neotropical landscapes with regard to landuse 
and effects on vertebrate populations. ECOSUR- 
report, 43 p. 

Andrews, A. 1990. Fragmentation of habitat by 
roads and utility corridors: A review. Australian 
Zoologist 26: 130-U1. 

Angelsen, A. and Kaimowitz, D. 1999. Rethinking 
the causes of deforestation: Lessons from 
economic models. The World Bank Research 
Observer U: 73-98. 

Butynski, T. M. 2001. Africa's great apes. In: Great 
Apes and Humans: the Ethics of Coexistence. 
Beck, B., Stoinski, T.S., Hutchins, M., Maple, T.L., 
Norton, B., Rowan, A., Stevens, E.F. and Arluke, A. 
leds.l Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington 
DC, pp. 3-56. 

Chomitz, K. and Gray, D. 1996. Roads, Lands, 
Markets and Deforestation: a spatial model of land 
use in Belize. The World Bank Economic Review. 
10 131:487-512. 

FAO. 2001. Global forest resources assessment. 
Main report. FAO, Rome. 

Forman, R. T. T. and Alexander, L. E. 1998. Roads 
and their major ecological effects. Annual Review of 
Ecology and Systematics 29: 207-231. 
Groves, C. P. 2002. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian 
University Press, Washington. 
Hilton-Taylor, C. (Compiler). 2000. 2000 IUCN Red 
List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, 
Switzerland and Cambridge. 

Houghton, R. A. 1994. The worldwide extent of land- 
use change. BioScience 44: 305-313. 
Kummer, D. M. and Turner, B. L. 1994. Rethinking 
the causes of deforestation in Southeast Asia. 
Bioscience 44: 323-328. 
Lambin, E. F., Turner, B. L, Geist, H. J., 
Agbola, S. B., Angelsen, A., Bruce, J. W., Coomes, 
O. T., Dirzo, R., Fischer, G., Folke, C, George, P. S., 
Homewood, K., Imbernon, J., Leemans, R., Li, X., 
Moran, E. F., Mortimore, M., Ramakrishnan, P. S., 
Richards, J. F., Skanes, H., Steffen, W., Stone, G. D., 



Svedin, U., Veldkamp, T. A., Vogel, C. and 

Xu, J. 2001. The causes of land-use and land-cover 

change: moving beyond the myths. Global 

Environmental Change 1 1 : 261-269. 

Maki, S., Kalliola, R. and Vuorinen, K. 2001. Road 

construction in the Peruvian Amazon: process, 

causes and consequences. Environmental 

Conservation 28: 199-214. 

Marshall, A. J., Jones, J. H. and Wrangham. R. W. 

2000. The plight of the apes: a global survey of ape 

populations. Briefing paper. Department of 

Anthropology, Harvard University. 

Reid, J. W. and Bowles, I. A. 1997. Reducing the 

impacts of roads on tropical forests. Environment 

39: 10-35. 

Rijksen, H. D. and Meijaard, E. 1999. Our Vanishing 

Relative: The Status of Wild Orang-utans at the 

Close of the Twentieth Century. Kluwer Academic 

Publishers, Dordrecht. 

Robertson, J. M. Y. and van Schaik, C. P. 2001. 

Causal factors underlying the dramatic decline of 

the Sumatran orangutan. Oryx 35: 26-38. 

Turner, I. M. and Corlett, R. T. 1996. The 

conservation value of small isolated fragments of 

lowland tropical rainforest. Trends in Ecology and 

Evolution 11181:330-336. 

Turner, I. M. 1996. Species loss in fragments of 

tropical rainforest: A review of the evidence. Journal 

of Applied Ecology 33(2): 200-209. 

Trombulak, S. C. and Frissell, C. A. 2000. Review of 

ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic 

communities. Conservation Biology 14: 18-30. 

UNEP. 2001. C. Nellemann, L Kullerud, I. Vistnets, 

B. C. Forbes, T. Foresman, E. Husby, G. P. Kofinas, 

B. P. Kaltenborn, J. Rouaud, M. Magomedova, R. 

Bobiwash, C. Lambrechts, P. J. Shei, S. Tveitdal, 0. 

Gren and T. S. Larsen. GLOBIO. Global methodology 

for mapping human impacts on the biosphere. 

UNEP/DEWA/TR.01-3 

Wilkie, D., Shaw, E., Rotberg, F., Morelli, G. and 

Auzel, P. 2000. Roads, development, and 

conservation in the Congo Basin. Conservation 

Biology 14: 1614-1622. 

Yeager, C. 1999. Orangutan Action Plan. 

Unpublished report for PHPA, Medan, January 

1993. 



23 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 



Annex 1 

Status and distribution of great apes 



Current status and distribution of 
African great apes 

We provide here a brief summary of the current 
status and distribution of great ape species. For an 
authoritative, recent account of the African apes, the 
reader is advised to consult Butynski (20011; for 
Southeast Asian apes, a valuable recent account is 
provided by Rijksen and Meijaard 11999]. A detailed 
account of each species is being prepared for the 
forthcoming World Atlas of Great Apes, currently in 
development. The text presented here should 
therefore be viewed as preliminary in nature. 

Chimpanzee 

Two species of chimpanzee occur in Africa: the 
common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes (often short- 
ened to chimpanzee] and the bonobo Pan paniscus 
(formerly known as the pygmy or gracile chimp- 
anzee]. There is significant overlap in size between 
the chimpanzee and the bonobo, but the latter is 
more gracile in build, with a smaller, rounder skull, 
and a flatter face with less-prominent brow ridges. 
It is a highly social animal, and can exist in large 
groups in which females maintain strong bonds with 
other females. 

The chimpanzee has a wide but discontinuous 
distribution in Equatorial Africa from Senegal in 
the west to Tanzania in the east (Fig. 1). Most 
taxonomists have recognized three or four distinct 
subspecies, although current genetic studies 
appear likely to refine this picture significantly. The 
western subspecies, P. f. verus, once occurred in 
13 countries from southern Senegal east to the 
Niger River in central Nigeria, but the range has 
greatly diminished. Populations between the 
Niger River in Nigeria and the Sanaga River in 
Cameroon have recently been described as a 
separate (fourth] subspecies, the Nigeria chim- 
panzee P. t. vetlerosus. The central subspecies, P. t. 
troglodytes, occurs from north Cameroon to the 
Ubanghi River and south to the Congo River. The 
eastern subspecies, P. t. schweinfurthii is found 
from the confluence of the Ubanghi and Congo 
rivers in western Democratic Republic of Congo 
eastwards to the southern end of Lake Tanganyika 
in Tanzania, and from there northwards to Burundi, 
Rwanda, Uganda and southern Sudan. Substantial 
numbers may exist in unsurveyed areas of eastern 



Democratic Republic of Congo, but elsewhere 
populations are small and scattered. No formal 
subspecies are currently recognized within the 
bonobo, which has a relatively wide but markedly 
discontinuous distribution in the central Congo 
basin, south of the Congo River. It occurs in forests 
around the Lomami River, the Kasai-Sankuru 
Rivers, and in the Lake Tumba-Lac Ndombe region, 
although it appears to be absent from the central 
part of this area between the Momboyo River and 
the Busira River. It had been thought that the 
species' range was continuous within this large 
forest zone, totalling approximately 340,000 km 2 , 
but field observations since the 1970s indicate that 
it is absent or rare in many areas and common only 
in a few scattered localities. Studies in the last 
decade have confirmed viable populations near 
the towns of Befale, Djolu, Bokungu and Ikela, 
and in a 3,000 km- area between the Yekokora and 
Lomako Rivers. 

As with other forest animals, it is difficult to assess 
population size and monitor trends in both species 
of chimpanzee. Attempts have been made to 
estimate overall population size by applying 
population density values at known sites to the 
remaining area of suitable habitat in the species 
range. Recent estimates of population size of 
western chimpanzee P. troglodytes verus indicate a 
total population size of between 25,500 and 52,900, 
possibly 78,000 of the central subspecies, and up to 
117,700 of the eastern subspecies, although the 
numbers for each could be substantially lower 
(Table 1]. The largest remaining populations occur 
in Central Africa, mainly in Gabon, Democratic 
Republic of Congo and Cameroon. Populations are 
extremely depleted in five countries (Ghana, 
Guinea-Bissau, Nigeria, Burundi and Rwanda], and 
another five countries (Senegal, Mali, the Cabinda 
enclave of Angola, Equatorial Guinea and Sudan] 
contain only small and dispersed remnant 
populations. Chimpanzees are now thought to be 
extinct in four of the 25 countries they once 
inhabited (Gambia, Burkina Faso. Togo and Benin]. 
Estimates made in the 1980s and more recent 
estimates cannot easily be compared because in 
both cases they include a wide margin of 
uncertainty, but it is clear that numbers have 
declined substantially and populations almost 
everywhere are at risk. 



24 



Annex 1 



Early speculative estimates of bonobo numbers 
(based on density of the more widespread common 
chimpanzee] suggested a total population of 
between 100.000 and 200.000 in the overall range. 
Other early estimates based on bonobo numbers at 
field study sites suggested a total population of as 
little as 10,000. Taking into account the fragmented 
distribution and recent impacts on the species, it 
has been suggested that present numbers are likely 
to be closer to the lower end of estimated numbers. 

Given a lack of comprehensive and precise 
numerical population data, estimates of extinction 
risk are to a great extent based on observed loss or 
modification of chimpanzee habitats, on rates of 
exploitation, and also, in the case of the geogra- 
phically restricted populations, on the risks inherent 
in a small range size. The Species Survival Com- 
mission of lUCN-The World Conservation Union in 
2000 categorized both the chimpanzee and the 
bonobo as Endangered, i.e. facing a very high risk 
of extinction in the wild in the near future. In the 
former, each of the four subspecies is also 
categorized as Endangered. 

Loss of suitable forest habitat is by far the greatest 
threat to both the chimpanzee and bonobo. This is 
caused by commercial logging, by conversion to 
agriculture, including cash crops and subsistence 
farming, by mineral prospecting and mining, and 
forest fires may also be significant. Progressive 
habitat loss often leaves small and unconnected 
patches in which chimpanzee and bonobo popu- 
lations are isolated and at risk from chance 
demographic factors. Development of logging or 
mining operations invariably extends new access 
routes into undisturbed habitat, with a marked 
increase in hunting of animals for bushmeat, often 
followed by conversion for agriculture. 

Deforestation is far advanced in West Africa, where 
only remnant tracts of primary rain forest persist. 
The fragmented populations of the eastern and 
western subspecies of common chimpanzee are 
primarily located in remnant forest, game reserves 
and national parks, but unauthorized hunting, 
logging, mining and farming are common in many 
nominally protected areas. The bonobo occurs in 
Salonga National Park (a World Heritage site], but 
this area is affected by civil unrest and increased 
hunting; elsewhere bonobos occur in a locally 
managed wildlife sanctuary in the Lukuru area of 
Democratic Republic of Congo. 



Hunting of adults for bushmeat also has an impact 
on populations and is an important and increasing 
threat to both species. Bushmeat is often a major 
source of dietary protein in West and Central Africa, 
and sometimes also has perceived magical or 
medicinal benefits. Although hunting may locally be 
at sustainable levels, it increases with logging and 
mining because food is required to maintain large 
labour forces, and because colonizing human 
communities often favour bushmeat. Civil conflict 
also tends to increase hunting, often by people 
from other regions. The impact of bushmeat 
hunting is now more widespread because it is 
increasing rapidly in parallel with increasing access 
into remote areas, and new markets are being 
developed to serve rising demand among urban 
populations. Chimpanzee products are widely sold 
in local and regional markets, and trade in infant 
chimps is often associated with hunting of adults. 
Bonobos appear particularly sensitive to distur- 
bance and are liable to move away from increasing 
contact with humans, as well as being particularly 
vulnerable to hunting with firearms. 

The live animal trade, including capture of infants 
for the pet trade and entertainment industry, and 
the international biomedical trade, are additional 
pressures. It has been reported that around 1,000 
wild-caught chimpanzees were exported from 
Africa annually during the past decade. Although 
much concern has in the past been expressed over 
such uses and the possible impact on wild 
populations, in itself this is far less a threat than 
habitat loss. 

Both the common chimpanzee and bonobo are 
listed in Appendix I of the 1973 Convention on 
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild 
Fauna and Flora (CITES], and trade in individuals or 
products is therefore subject to strict regulation by 
ratifying nations. Trade for primarily commercial 
purposes is banned. Both species are protected by 
law throughout their ranges, although enforcement 
is usually poor to non-existent. Both are listed in 
Class A of the African Convention (1969), which 
prohibits the hunting or capture of the species 
unless in the national interest or for scientific 
purposes. 

Gorilla 

Gorillas occur in a range of forest habitats in Africa 
(Fig. 1). Populations are grouped in two main 
regions: equatorial West Africa and eastern Central 



25 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 



Africa, but the number of actual species recognized 
is under review. 

Until very recently, most taxonomists recognized a 
single species with three subspecies: the western 
and eastern lowland forms, and the highland form. 
In this system, the western lowland gorilla Gorilla 
gorilla gorilla is the most widespread subspecies, 
ranging from southeast Nigeria, Cameroon, the 
southwest corner of the Central African Republic, 
southward into west Congo, Equatorial Guinea, 
Gabon, and northern parts of the Cabinda enclave 
of Angola. There is a gap of around 1,000 km 
between these populations and Grauer's gorilla 
G. g. graueri, which is only known to occur in 
eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (although 
possibly present in the north]. The mountain gorilla 
G. g. beringei beringei occurs on the extinct 
volcanoes forming the Virunga range along the 
borders of Rwanda, Uganda and Democratic 
Republic of Congo, and in the Bwindi-lmpenetrable 
Forest National Park of southwest Uganda 
neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo. 

More recently, a number of primatologists have 
recognized western and eastern populations as 
separate full species, Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla 
beringei respectively. In the western group, the 
isolated Nigeria-Cameroon gorillas are now 
recognized as a subspecies. Cross River gorilla 
G. g. diehli, and there is much divergence even 
within this subgroup. The eastern group includes 
both the lowland and the mountain populations 
(among the latter the Bwindi gorillas may form a 
fifth subspecies]. 

There is no reliable estimate of the total population of 
wild gorillas. Recent forest surveys in Gabon and 
Congo have established that western lowland gorillas 
may occur at higher densities and in a wider range of 
forest habitats than was previously thought, and the 
total population of this group may number 94,700 
individuals. It was thought during the 1980s that 
around 1,500 gorillas occurred in the Nigeria- 
Cameroon (Cross River) region, but a recent estimate 
suggests only 150-200 remain, split into five 
populations, each isolated on a separate hill area. 
Grauer's gorilla had been estimated during the 
1980s to comprise 3.000-5,000 individuals, all in 
Democratic Republic of Congo, but information on 
distribution was incomplete and others have 
suggested that numbers may approach 16,900. 
Recent estimates suggest that around 320 mountain 



gorillas remain, with slightly more in the Virungas 
than the Bwindi area. Given a general lack of 
comprehensive numerical population data, estimates 
of extinction risk are to a great extent based on 
observed loss or modification of gorilla habitats, on 
rates of exploitation, and also, in the case of the 
geographically restricted forms, on the risks inherent 
in a small range size. 

The Species Survival Commission of lUCN-The 
World Conservation Union has adopted the new 
taxonomy, and has categorized both western gorilla 
and eastern gorilla (G. beringei] as Endangered 
overall, i.e. facing a very high risk of extinction in the 
wild in the near future. Three particular populations 
are categorized as Critically Endangered, i.e. facing 
an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the 
immediate future; these are the Cross River form in 
the far west, and both the mountain and Bwindi 
forms in the far east. 

Habitat loss or degradation have been regarded as 
the major threats to gorilla populations, but much 
recent concern has been focused on the bushmeat 
trade, and the impact of civil conflict within the 
range of gorillas. Forest is being converted to crop 
production and livestock grazing in many parts of 
Africa. In West Africa, commercial logging and petro- 
leum exploitation have been cited as increasingly 
significant threats to gorilla habitat. Where new 
routes are opened up for timber or mineral 
extraction, exploitation of forest animals for food use 
(bushmeatl rises in order to support the incoming 
labour force, and civil conflict can have the same 
effect. In eastern parts of Democratic Republic of 
Congo a recent increase in mining activity has badly 
impacted habitats and wildlife in key protected areas. 
Although bushmeat is culturally and nutritionally 
important in many regions, concern has been 
expressed recently about the intensity and extent of 
the bushmeat trade, and its adverse impacts on wild 
populations. The impact of bushmeat hunting is now 
more widespread and serious because it is 
increasing rapidly in parallel with increasing access 
into remote areas, and new markets are being 
developed to serve rising demand among urban 
populations. 

International trade in live gorillas and gorilla 
products, formerly a significant threat to the species, 
has greatly declined since the gorilla was listed on 
Appendix I of CITES in 1977. National laws for control 
of hunting and capture exist in all countries with 



26 



Annex 7 



gorilla populations, but lack of funds and inac- 
cessibility make wide enforcement of this legislation 
impractical. In the dry season when food is scarce 
gorillas frequently raid crops, and may be hunted at 
this time. In places, gorilla products are sometimes 
used for traditional magical or medicinal purposes. 
Gorillas are also liable to be maimed or killed by 
traps and snares intended for other animals. 

Current status and distribution of 
Southeast Asian great apes 

Much of the information presented here is derived 
from the recent accounts presented by Rijksen and 
Meijaard 11999] and Yeager 11999). 

Orangutan 

Orangutans are the only great apes outside Africa, 
and occur in forested habitats on the islands of 
Borneo and Sumatra. Fossil material indicates that 
orangutans were formerly widespread in continental 
Southeast Asia. All extant populations had until 
recently been regarded as a single species Pongo 
pygmaeus, but after analysis of mitochondrial DNA it 
was proposed in 1996 that the genetic divergence 
between orangutans from Borneo and those from 
Sumatra was sufficiently marked that orangutans on 
each island should be treated as separate species: 
the Bornean orangutan Pongo pygmaeus and the 
Sumatran orangutan P. abelii. 

The Bornean orangutan occurs in forests in two of 
the three nations sharing the island: Indonesia 
(Kalimantan! and Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak), but 
its presence in Brunei is unconfirmed. Recent 
analysis of morphological data suggests that three 
subspecies may exist IGroves 2002): Pongo 
pygmaeus pygmaeus is medium-sized and occurs in 
northwest Kalimantan and Sarawak; the largest 
subspecies. P. p. wurmbii, is found in southwest 
Kalimantan, and the smallest, P. p. mono, occurs in 
Sabah and east Kalimantan. Rivers form the main 
barriers between these divisions. The Sumatran 
orangutan occurs only in the provinces of Aceh and 
Sumatera Utara in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. 

As with other forest animals, it is difficult to assess 
orangutan population size and monitor trends. In 
the late 1980s the total population was tentatively 
estimated at approaching 180,000; this figure was 
derived by multiplying a value for species density by 
an estimate of the remaining area of habitat. In 1990, 
the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group estimated 



that there were approximately 30,000 to 50,000 
orangutans remaining in the wild, but cautioned that 
these figures may have been overestimates. 

Recent analyses have estimated respective declines 
of 97% and 86% in Bornean and Sumatran 
orangutans during the last century; the future of the 
two species is therefore of serious concern. The 
Bornean orangutan was classified as critically 
endangered and the Sumatran as endangered by 
IUCN in 2000 IHilton-Taylor 2000). 

Although Bornean orangutans currently outnumber 
Sumatran orangutans, oatterns of decline and 
habitat loss suggest the Bornean species will 
undergo a more rapid decline and without 
intervention their numbers may drop below that of 
the Sumatran species. Recent estimates suggest 
that 15,000 Bornean orangutans currently survive in 
increasingly fragmented forest totalling little more 
than 100,000 km 2 in area. Under current trends and 
with just 17% of orangutan range currently protected 
IK fragments supporting 3,240 individuals) it is 
expected that only 10-15% of this population will 
survive in the long term. Approximately 12,500 
Sumatran orangutans are thought to exist in 26,000 
km : of forest. A decline of 50% was predicted to 
occur between 1991 and 1999. This trend is expected 
to continue [Hilton-Taylor 2000), but the current 
protected area (4.2%, 5,400 individuals) should 
support 60% of the present population. 

Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are the 
major concerns threatening orangutan survival. 
Human activities (logging, mining, plantations, 
agriculture, road building, industrial development 
etc.) have caused the loss of anywhere between 
25 and 50% of suitable orangutan habitat depending 
on region and less than 14% of the official 
conservation and protected forest is suitable ape 
habitat. Official timber concessions almost 
completely overlap the fragmented distribution 
range of the orangutan in Kalimantan and northern 
Sumatra. In eastern Malaysia large areas have been 
converted for plantations and logging has reportedly 
increased considerably during the last 10 years; 
86% of forest land was conceded for timber 
concessions in 1986. 

Fires and droughts have ravaged Kalimantan 
repeatedly over the past two decades and fires began 
burning again in 2002. Significant fire damage last 
occurred in 1997 and 1998, affecting 25-60% of 



27 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 



orangutan habitat (depending on region]. Localized 
damage was extreme; in Kutai National Park 95% of 
lowland forest was lost (Yeager 1999]. The disprop- 
ortionate loss of peat swamp and lowland forest 
was the most serious consequence since this is 
key habitat for orangutans. As a result of the fires, 
Rijksen and Meijaard 11999] believe Borneo's popu- 
lation was reduced from 23,000 in 1996 to 15.400 
in 1998 - a decline of 33% in just one year. Fire 
and drought appear to be relatively new threats 
in Sumatra, and have not yet been considered 
as serious threats for the Sumatran species. 
Approximately 5% of the 1997-1998 fire hotspots 
occurred within their habitat on this island. Habitat 
degradation is more of a concern in Sumatra since 
almost twice the current population could be 
supported if the forest was not degraded. 

Orangutans are unable to survive long term in 
degraded and fragmented forests. Their fruit- 
dominated diet requires them to occupy large 
ranges to ensure sufficient supplies and some 
individuals commute between feeding sources. 
Devastated forests offer few fruit resources and 
orangutans are forced out to roam in search of food. 
Large numbers were massacred while fleeing the 
flames and smoke during and after the extensive 
forest fires of 1997 and 1998. The displacement of 
apes can cause a 'shock wave' of refugee crowding 
in adjacent forests. This overcrowding can lead to 
increased physiological and psychological stress, 
which can have negative impacts on reproduction. 
Similarly, orangutans do not cope well with selec- 
tive logging. Selectively logged forest and old 



secondary growth contain only 30-50% of the 
orangutan density found in primary forest. 

Fragmentation of habitat also has serious conse- 
quences for genetic variability. For a genetically 
healthy population of at least 500 individuals a 
minimum of 1,000 km' in Borneo and 600 km : in 
Sumatra are required (a higher density of large fruit 
sources in Sumatra allows higher orangutan 
densities]. On the basis of this criterion only six 
orangutan populations in Sumatra and 13 in Kali- 
mantan inhabit forest blocks large enough to be 
relatively free of a direct fragmentation impact. Only 
three populations in Sabah and one in Sarawak reach 
this criterion. 

Orangutans are a protected species over their entire 
distributional range and all hunting is illegal. 
Nevertheless, poaching is common in both Borneo 
and Sumatra. Poaching safaris Iby army and 
industrial elites] reportedly take place and hunting is 
still common in rural and forest communities. Loss 
of females is the key concern. Adult females are 
found at higher densities than adult males, and thus 
are more likely to be targets for hunters. Moreover, 
adult females are typically killed to capture their 
infant for the pet trade. Losses due to hunting and the 
pet trade may be sizeable and recent reports indicate 
an increase in poaching, primarily as a response to 
the economic crisis in Indonesia. There is a regular 
trade in apes to ports in Java, Singapore, Bangkok, 
Hong Kong and Taiwan. Habitat loss due to fires has 
exacerbated this problem, since it drives animals into 
increased contact with humans. 



28 



Annex 2 



Annex 2 

GLOBIO, GRASP and 

the World Atlas of Great Apes 



GRASP partners 



United Nations Environment Programme (UNEPI; 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization [UNESCO]; African Wildlife Foundation 
(AWF); Ape Alliance; Born Free Foundation; Bristol 
Zoo Gardens; Bushmeat Crisis Task Force; 
Conservation International (CI); Convention on 
Biological Diversity (CBDI; Convention on 
International Trade in Endangered Species of 
Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES]; Convention on 
Migratory Species (CMS); Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund; 
Fauna and Flora International (FFI); International 
Fund for Animal Welfare IIFAW]; International 
Gorilla Conservation Programme (IGCP); Institute 
for Tropical Forest Conservation; Jane Goodall 
Institute [JGII; Orangutan Foundation; Pan African 
Sanctuaries Alliance IPASA]; UNEP World 
Conservation Monitoring Centre IUNEP-WCMC); Wild 
Chimpanzee Foundation (WCFl; Wildlife Conser- 
vation Society IWCS], World Wide Fund for Nature 
IWWF). 



GLOBIO 



GLOBIO ('Global methodology for mapping human 
impacts on the biosphere'! is being developed for and 
together with the United Nations Environment 
Programme IUNEP) to assess and map the current 
and possible future impacts of human expansions on 
the environment and biodiversity at local, regional 
and global scales. The method has been applied to 
assist in the development of scenarios of global 
environmental change, as part of UNEPs third Global 
Environment Outlook IGEO-31. 

For further information please contact: 

Dr. Christian Nellemann 

Global coordinator, GLOBIO 

UNEPGRID-Arendal 

C/0 NINA 

Fakkelgarden, Storhove 

N-2624 Lillehammer, Norway 

Tel. + 47 612 87900 

Fax + Ul 612 87901 

e-mail christian.nellemannianina.no 

website http://www.globio.info/ 



Great Apes Survival Project 

UNEP is aware of the urgent need for commitment - 
at the highest levels - to ensure the survival of great 
apes. UNEP, together with CITES, the Convention 
on Migratory Species ICMS], the Convention on 
Biological Diversity (CBDI, the African Wildlife 
Foundation, the Ape Alliance, Born Free Foundation, 
Bristol Zoo Gardens, Conservation International, 
Fauna and Flora International, the Orangutan 
Foundation, the Wild Chimpanzee Foundation, WWF 
and other partners, will endeavour to bring world- 
wide attention to the ape crisis, raise funds for 
conservation, and develop a global conservation 
strategy for all great ape populations. 

The Executive Director of UNEP has appointed three 
UN Special Envoys for Great Apes supported by a 
small team, to visit each range state and obtain 
endorsements at the highest political level for 
improved protection, strengthened support for 
conservation and the preparation and adoption of 
National Great Ape Survival Plans. In addition to 
seeking political support for great ape conservation, 
the Special Envoy team will give particular priority 
to fundraising activities for the priority activities 
identified by the national plans. 

There are 23 countries with naturally occurring 
populations of great apes. Orangutans are found in 
two countries, gorillas in nine, chimpanzees in 21 
[all those with gorillas also have chimpanzees] and 
bonobos in just one [the Democratic Republic of 
Congo). In each state, GRASP will identify what needs 
to be done to ensure the survival of its ape 
populations. In addition, conservation effort is often 
applied in a piecemeal fashion, where opportunities 
present themselves and resources are available. 
Such efforts would have a greater impact if they 
were part of a systematic prioritized approach. The 
strategies must also be integrated with the 
development objectives of range states and be 
sympathetic to the needs of local communities. 

The strategies recommended in each National Great 
Ape Survival Plan (NGASP] will give cohesion to the 
existing work of many agencies, organizations and 



29 



The Great Apes - the road ahead 



individuals; this should enable resources to be 
targeted more effectively and identify areas currently 
neglected. The project will enable agencies and 
organizations to access a wide range of funding 
opportunities in the state, charitable and commercial 
sectors. 

For further information please contact: 

GRASP 

UNEP Division of Environmental Conventions 

Tel. + 254 2 624163 

Fax + 254 2 623926 

e-mail melanie.virtueOunep.org; or 

graspOunep.org http://www.unep.org/grasp/ 
website http://www.unep.org/grasp/ 

The World Atlas of Great Apes 

The UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre is 
coordinating the compilation of a World Atlas of 
Great Apes, in support of the Great Apes Survival 
Project IGRASP]. 

The World Atlas of Great Apes will provide a 
comprehensive review of what is currently known 
about the great apes, including a description of their 
ecology and distribution and the key threats that 
they face. The book will include an assessment of 
the current status of great ape species in each 
of the countries where they are found, together with 
an overview of current conservation action and 
priorities, illustrated by maps. Furthermore, the atlas 
will highlight the importance of great apes to people. 

The atlas will be of interest to the general public, as 



well as conservation groups, NGOs, governments, 
intergovernmental organizations, adademia and 
students. It will raise the international profile of 
great ape conservation efforts, and help guide future 
action. In particular, the atlas will support the 
development of National Great Ape Survival Plans 
(NGASPs) in each range state. This will be achieved 
by inclusion of distribution maps, information on 
specific threats facing apes, and priorities for 
conservation action, for each of the 23 range states. 

UNEP-WCMC has many years experience of 
producing conservation atlases, including most 
recently the highly successful World Atlas of Coral 
Reefs, and the World Atlas of Biodiversity, both 
published by the University of California Press. 
These publications have been designed to present 
technical information in a highly accessible format, 
through the extensive use of maps, diagrams 
and illustrations. 

The World Atlas of Great Apes will be produced in 
close collaboration with the Born Free Foundation, 
together with other key organizations and individuals 
active in great ape conservation. 

For further information please contact: 

Dr. Adrian Newton, 

UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre 

219 Huntingdon Road 

Cambridge CB3 0DLUKR 

Tel. + 44 (0)1223 277314 

Fax + 44 1011223 277136 

e-mail adrian.newtonOunep-wcmc.org 

website http://www.unep-wcmc.org/ 



www.unep.org 

United Nations Environment Programme 

P.O. Box 30552. Nairobi. Kenya 

TeU 254 2 621234 

Fax + 254 2623927 

e-mait cpinfoOunep.org 

website www.unep.org